Training In Virtual Environments

D.K. Anand, J. Brough, M. Schwartz, R. Kavetsky, S.K. Gupta

CALCE EPSC Press, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2008.

The Center for Energetic Concepts Development at the University Maryland, College Park and the Energetics Technology Center in La Plata, Maryland are working on developing methodologies for training in virtual environments.This book reports on the work and provides an overview of different components of virtual environments. The technologies covered include displays, tracking systems, and user interaction devices. It also provides an overview of the basic modeling framework for creating objects in the virtual environment and manipulating them. This material is expected to help the reader understand different technology choices in constructing virtual environments and their advantages and disadvantages in training applications.

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

  • 1.1 Definitions
  • 1.2 Brief History of Virtual Environments
  • 1.3 Components of Virtual Environments
  • 1.4 Next Generation Training Needs
  • 1.5 Role of Virtual Environments in Training
  • 1.6 Structure of the Book

Chapter 2 Overview of Display Technologies

  • 2.1 Benefits of Depth Perception in Training
  • 2.2 Principles of Stereo Vision
  • 2.3 Head Mounted Displays
  • 2.4 Projection-Based Stereo Displays

Chapter 3 Interacting with Virtual Environments

  • 3.1 Tracking Technologies
  • 3.2 Touching and Feeling Virtual Objects

Chapter 4 Geometric Modeling for Virtual Environments

  • 4.1 Representing Geometric Objects
  • 4.2 Geometric Transformations
  • 4.3 Trajectory Specifications
  • 4.4 Rendering
  • 4.5 Collision Detection

Chapter 5 Use of Virtual Environments in Training Applications

  • 5.1 Virtual Environment-Based Training Tools
  • 5.2 Transfer of Knowledge
  • 5.3 Effects of Presence, Memory, and Spatial Abilities on Learning
  • 5.4 Assembly Design and Planning in Virtual Environments
  • 5.5 Development of Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Training Applications

Chapter 6 Virtual Training Studio

  • 6.1 Background
  • 6.2 Hardware
  • 6.3 Software Architecture
  • 6.4 Benefits of VTS

Chapter 7 Virtual Author

  • 7.1 Background
  • 7.2 Training Material Creation Process
  • 7.3 Technical Challenges and Solutions
  • 7.4 Discussion

Chapter 8 Virtual Mentor

  • 8.1 Background
  • 8.2 Handling of Symmetries and Error Detection
  • 8.3 Annotation of Ambiguous Instructions
  • 8.4 Logging, Analysis, and Generation of Custom Tests
  • 8.5 Discussion

Chapter 9 Assessment of the VTS and Training Performance

  • 9.1 Background
  • 9.2 Methodology
  • 9.3 Data Analysis: System Performance
  • 9.4 Data Analysis: Training Modes
  • 9.5 Data Analysis –Training Features
  • 9.6 Learning Paths`
  • 9.7 Survey Results
  • 9.8 Estimating Training Time
  • 9.9 Future Tutorial Development Analysis
  • 9.10 Main Findings

Chapter 10 Emerging Technologies

  • 10.1 Stereo Displays without Glasses
  • 10.2 Improved User Interfaces
  • 10.3 Ease of Creating 3D Models
  • 10.4 Mixed Reality
  • 10.5 Models for Virtual Humans
  • 10.6 Context Dependent Simplifications
  • 10.7 Capturing Cognitive Activities during Complex Training Tasks
  • 10.8 Incorporating Annotations in 3D Animations
  • 10.9 Automatically Adjusting the Level of Detail in Instructions